The advancement of the medicine is not so modern as we used to believe. Maybe it would be better to talk about a rebirth of the medicine...
We all know that a lot of knowledge of the use of herbs as medicine came to us with our spoken traditions. This can be explained maybe as observation thorough the ages, but we can't explain some other knowledge that we also got, like the use of the spiders cobweb on infected wounds to cure it as we use today the penicillin.
People have used any available help to improve or to correct his vision from many years ago. This can be concluded for astronomical observations but also of some scripts that are describing lenses, as the one that Caesar used on his ring to see better the games in coliseum.
The caesarean used on parturition is a very old knowledge, even older than roman times that Julius Caesar born this way gave his name on the method.
Close to Saint Louis (Missouri USA) have been found skulls from Indians with inlays at their teeth made from a kind of cement! We manage to achieve this recently...
At the Egyptian Valley of the Kings, have been found mummies with a kind of bridge used to repair some teeth. It is much similar to what we use today.
Some teeth inlays have been found at skulls of Incas skeletons. These inlays are made from stainless steel! This is something that we don't have the knowledge to do since then...
Mr B.Laoufer in his book 'the prehistory of the aviation' writes that the Chinese emperor Tsin Si (250 B.C.) was using a 'magic mirror' to can see within the flesh of the human. Was this something like X rays?
On the Indian holy scripts there are some reports about cosmetic surgeries.
Let's see something more impressive. At 1969 the universities of Leningrad and Ashaband (USSR), on an archaeological mission they found in a cave 30 skeletons almost 100.000 years old. 8 skeletons had strange marks on the bones of the chest. Over the place of the heart there was a healed wound on the cut bone and also the bones around had moved and came back to their proper places. Examining the periosteum over the cut bone it seemed that the man had lived at least 3 to 5 years after the surgery.
Other Surgeries like this one had also found too much younger skeletons at Palestine, Persia, Euzi of France etc.
From these indication we can conclude that with an unknown way and probably for healing purposes, some successful surgeries could happen to people that we believed to be in the stage between human and ape. It is obvious that we are missing something about the history, as we know it...
At Egypt, from the library of Alexandria, has been found a script describing a heart transplantation during the kingdom of Djeser (3rd dynasty). When a guard of him wounded in the heart, the royal doctors replaced his heart with the heart of a veal! The scripture ends saying that the soldier cured! 5.000 years ago...
At the Egypt have been found skulls with marks from successful surgeries, since the person lived enough to heal the cut on the skull.
At the ancient Peru their doctors could replace part of a skull with a golden plate.
We have heard recently about the mad cow disease that some people believe that is caused because the animals were eating meat against their nature. On the Greek mythology (or maybe history?) the same problem had the horses of Ganimidis when he feed them with meat to make them stronger. We kept this knowledge but we thought it was just another myth...
Since the ancient days viruses had stop ed a lot of peoples. At 1520 Spanish soldiers transferred an African slave to Cuba that was sick from variola. The half of the Aztecs was soon - not exist anymore - . At 1531 Spanish transfer the rubeola, same disaster. At 1545 typhus is transferred and later other viruses. This makes the local people to travel in very big numbers.
The Spanish soldiers got other venereal diseases like syphilis. This caused big problems to all Europe.
The caliber (I.Q.) of Mayas is measured to 85.8 for the men and 86.8 for the women. At USA the men has an average 79 and the women 80. Why such a deviation exists on these 'farmer' people?