Heron of Alexandria was a Greek mathematician, engineer, and inventor of the 1st century AD. He is known mostly for the engineering capabilities especially with hydraulic devices, simple machines, on automations, but he was an important mathematician, too.
The formula of Heron for the area of a triangle, which is sometimes attributed to Archimedes, gives the area in terms of the sides:
A = the square root of the product of s is the semi perimeter of a triangle with sides a, b, and c.
In his book 'Mihanika' (about machines) there are descriptions of 5 different types of machines: derrick, lever, pulley, wedge and worn screw.
Heron also invented the first machine working with steam. It was like the modern high-pressure casserole, but I don't know if he used it for faster cooking, too! ;-)
Olive oil has a big tradition in Greece so the people in ancient Greece had also the real need to put oil out of olives. Heron had made a lot of such devices. Ctesibius also made one based on vacuum pressure!
The automations that Heron constructed remained famous in history for their originality.
In the right picture we see the automation that was forcing the doors of the temple to open whenever a fire was lit on the altar.
The Geodesic binoculars Of Heron (1st century. a.c.) is
a portable tool that allows precise geodesic measurements on the surface
of ground. Metre azimuths, heights, lengths, as well as corner distances.
It is constituted by a wooden tripod of height 50 roughly hundredth, above in which it supports the aiming (angle gauge) and a marked plate on which it is moved. The machine consists of mechanism of precision for horizontal and vertical rotation of angle gauge with the use of interminable snail, as well as aiming. The mechanism of precision is manufactured from bronze.
The manufacture is constituted from
a cluster toothed
wheels, involved with interminable snails, which transport the movement of
wheel one of wheeled and convert it in units of measurement of length.
The three disks in the upper part of odometer record in length
the covered distance. The effigy of chariot is smaller than the natural
size, while its mechanism can be considered that it is in
natural size, becuase it is possible to adjust and in a bigger wheeled. The
was based on the description of "Heron (1st century. a.c.) which was considered
as most likely, kbecause it is autonomous and adjusted in anyone wheeled.
"Temples or altars mediocre size are manufactured, capable
to move automatic and stand afterwards in determined places.
And the idols above
them are moving in a sequence that suits in
the relative fable, and finally turn back in their initial place ".
The effigy of mobile automatic of Heron were made with base the dimensions and analytic descriptions that are contained in the work "Automatications of Alexandrian engineer". The Motive energy is caused by the fall of leaden thing, connected with the motive wheel via a thread. The programming of movements becomes with dextral or left turned winding of the thread above in the motive axis. The portable automatic that is analytically presented by Heron in his work, is constituted by a rectangle base that brings wheels and four pillar with peristyle. Above this, ther is a flooring that supports an circular temple preened with the form of Dionyssis who carry mug and holy stick, it is accompanied from small panther and is surrounded by six Vakhides, who dance.
The effigy contains inevitably, for reasons of good operation, elements, pulleys of modern manufacture.
"Above an heated boiler is rotated a sphere regularly
adapted in a rotated axis. "
The Aiolo's sphere of Heron develops the pressure of steam and it changes in motive rotated force and constitutes indubitably pioneer of locomotive.
In this reconstruction, for reasons of safety and fast operation of mechanism, the water in the boiler is heated with electric energy. The steam is channelled through the pipe supply in the sphere, and is launched through the nozzles with pressure and causes motive propensity. The reconstruction contains inevitably, for reasons of good operation, elements bench, vavlve, using modern manufacture.
"In an spring, or generally where there is an
running water, are manufactured birds that sing. Near them it
an owl, that can turn itself automatically to the birds, whenever they
stop singing, or him turn away, whenever they continue their singing.
And this becomes perpetually ".
In the containers that are found under the spring is checked the level of water with two axial hydraulic siphons. With mechanic way is sychronized the rotation of the owl with the flow that causes the voices of birds. The reconstruction contains inevitably, for reasons of good operation, elements, benches, vavlves, pulleys of modern manufacture. With obviously modern methods became the guarantee of closed hydraulic system of continuous flow.
Is a interminable snail the which is supported in apenture that gives the possibility to be turned right and left. Turning it to a direction, gives big pressures between the snail and constant point. This is achieved when the apenture in which the snail is turned is found in constant base of square form.