Interesting enough are also the first Greek clocks that were powered by water pressure! Archimedes and Ctesibius made some versions of them. These were in use for many years and also helped the telecommunications to keep people in touch at certain times of the day. The most advanced of them had used some clever systems to keep constant pressure on the water that was flowing, through specially made pipes.
A lot of sun clocks were also widely available and some of them are still working until today! Cheap enough to make but works only when the sun shines.
I don't know about the accuracy but I'd like one of them in my garden!!-)
Whoever wanted even better accuracy about the time, could find some simple astrolabes that could help him to find the time day or night with accuracy of 1 minute! With simple training could also find a lot of astronomical and astrological data, as soon as the clouds were not on the sky! ;-)
These data was very valuable for the astronomers and the astrologers of this time period that pushed the construction of higher accuracy astrolabes much farther.
One very simple method of measuring time was the well-known clepsydra of specified flow total time. Other method was by the use of specific dimensions candles with marks on them.
Plato made the first clepsydra working as alarm clock.
It counts with unequal duration hours. The time duration from the east of the Sun in the horizontal plane up to its west was divided by ancients in 12 equal parts hours each day. "Thus this hours at the aestival equinox had biggest duration and at wintry the lowest. Gnomon (enormous manufacture with indicator at top bar, or obelisk etc) it was used from the 20th century. a.c. in China, in Egypt and in other countries. With this they determined the Meridian Line, the Middays, the equinoxes and other geographic and astronomical elements. It was also used for the measurement of time with unequal hours in the antiquity, like a Solar Clock. In the present effigy of Gnomon-solar watch was carved with the orbits of shade of peak of indicator at the equinox and of course for daily hours, with hour S (=6) the Midday. For comparison with the equal time hours of True Solar Time, were carved also such equl-time hours with thin interrupted lines.
The hydraulic clock of Ktisibio (3rd century. b.c) is constituted
by combination of containers, provided with regulated controllers of flow water,
so as to achieve desirable rising of plotoon in the last container.
The plotoon brings indicator, which indicates the precise hour on spined spandrel.
The spandrel changes Place depending on the date, so it is ensured the precise
division of twelve daily hours, that measured that season.
This clock functions with operator, which once a day supplies with water and places the spandrel with the hours in his right date.
The solar clock of the Philippos is constituted by three cupreous
rings. The exterior has diameter out. 72,5 kms and in. 64,9 kms,
and brings diametrically two rings for hanging. The intermediate ring is
constituted by two separate semi-rings. Each semi ring is carried
by axis which constitutes single manufacture with the thing in which passes
the ring. The axes and the semi-rings together have possibility of rotation
In order to work, the exterior ring should first direct itself in vertical place with the meridian level, so that it takes the direction of East-west. Afterwards the internal ring, with the apenture, is placed in the month that is covered. The light blot shows the hour in the antyga before or after the highest point. The measurement of height of sun at his highest point of day equinox gives the supplement of geographical width. The machine determines also the azimuth and the height of sun or some other star. The machine presents common characteristics with "brachial astrolab" which was proposed by Iparhos. The spirit of manufacture of clock of Philippos, with only geographically back of four cities Alexandria, Rhodes, Rome and Ouiennis, classifies it in the type that is called "for the history". From the signs it is dated between 250 and 350 a.c.
This Byzantine machine belongs, at all probability, in the season
of kingdom of Ioustinianou, around the 530 a.c., and became from unknown
until today constructor. It has complex mechanism. It was rescued
only four parts of the ancient machine
that were granted in 1980 in the Museum of Sciences of London. The collaborators
of Museum of Sciences I. Field and M. Wright achieved to rebuilt it,
based on proportional manufactures and relevant information. It
is complex as far as the operation is concerned and it includes Sun clock
and calendar mechanism. It is consindered as "descendant of" eminent
machine of hellenistic period, known as "Mechanism of Antikithiron".